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Getting to know the types of red tilapia
Tilapia is a type of tilapia originating from the waters of the Nile River basin in Africa, and was first imported to Indonesia in 1969, 1990, and 1994 from Taiwan, Thailand and The Philippines, respectively. According to Kordi, 1997 In general, the characteristics of tilapia include the following:
• Body shape slightly elongated and flat.
• Has six dark vertical stripes on the caudal fin.
• The body has 10 vertical lines.
• The tail has eight transverse stripes with a blackish end.
• The eyes are slightly protruding and the edges are bluish green.
• Position of the terminal mouth.
• The position of the pelvic fins to the pectoral fins is thoric.
• Linea lateralis severed into two parts, extending above the pectoral fin.
• The number of scales on the lateral line is 34 pieces
• Has 17 spines on the dorsal fin, on the pelvic fins there are six weak rays, the pectoral fins are 15 weak rays, the anal fins are three spines and 10 rays are weak and the tail shape is upright.
Currently, there are several types of tilapia that have been developed. One type of fish that is quite widely known is red tilapia. Red tilapia is the most popular type of fish by the people of Indonesia. According to Putra, Gunanti M and Luthfiana AS (2017), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a fishery commodity that has high economic value. Tilapia is very popular with the people of Indonesia because of the delicious taste of the meat and the thick flesh and the high nutritional content of tilapia meat. The growth and development period of red tilapia is known to be relatively short compared to other types of tilapia. The time required for red tilapia cultivation in one harvest or until it is ready for consumption is approximately four months on average. So that farmers will get the maximum profit.
The classification of red tilapia is as follows:
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Subphylum : Vertebrates
Class : Pisces
Subclass : Teleostei
Order : Perchomorphi
Suborder : Perchoidae
Family : Chiclidae
Genus : Oreochromis
Species : Oreochromis sp
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Red tilapia has been specially cultivated by grow out farmers. For bright red and orange tilapia they have been marketed as red snapper and orange snapper. Hybrid tilapia has been the single most successful aspect of commercial tilapia research and production over the last 20 years. This red tilapia hybrid is stronger and grows faster than the pure red tilapia parent itself. What is more important is the bright red color of the fish which makes red tilapia more attractive to consumers. Not only the shape and color that resembles red snapper, but the taste of the meat is not much different from red snapper.
The type of red tilapia that is currently being developed in Indonesia is a tetrahybrid tilapia. This fish is the result of crossing four different species of the genus Oreochromis, namely Oreochromis mossambicus (Mujair), Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia), Oreochromis hornorum, and Oreochromis aureus (Sucipto and Prihartono, 2007). In addition, red tilapia also has other types, namely:
a. Nifi red tilapia
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This fish is commonly called red tilapia, Nirah or NIFI (National Inland Fish Institute). Is a cross between local male fish and foreign females. Its characteristic is that its body color is a mixture of slightly reddish, slightly white, and slightly yellow. This fish is claimed to be liked by many people, so many are cultivating it. In addition, red tilapia is claimed to be able to produce more male seeds.
b. Jatimbulan red tilapia
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Jatimbulan red tilapia is the result of fish breeding from the Umbulan Freshwater Aquaculture Technical Implementation Unit (UPT PBAT) which was carried out by individual selection using six parental strains of tilapia which were then crossed and spawned (Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of East Java Province, Balai for Aquaculture Development). Bargain Umbulan, 2016). Based on the Decree of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia No. Kep. 11/Men/2008, jatimbulan tilapia has been designated as a superior strain for the parent of jatimbulan tilapia
Jatimbulan red tilapia has 44 pairs of chromosomes (2n=44). The shape and arrangement of chromosomes (karyotype) of Jatimbulan red tilapia are four pairs of sub metacentric, nine pairs of sub telocentric and nine pairs of telocentric (4SM-9ST-9T).
Arifin, M. Y. (2016). Pertumbuhan dan survival rate ikan nila(Oreochromis. Sp) strain merah dan strain hitamyang dipelihara pada media bersalinitas. Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Batanghari Jambi, 159-166.
Putra Ewing Mahendra. Gunanti Mahasri. Luthfiana Aprilianita Sari. 2017. Infestasi ektoparait pada ikan nila (Oreocromis niloticus) yang dipelihara dengan menggunakan sistem akuaponik dan tanpa akuaponik. Journal of Aquaculture ad Fish Health Vol. 7 No. 1. Fakultas Perikanan dan Kelautan. Universitas Airlangga.
Sugiarto, C. (2020, April 14). 21 Jenis ikan nila lengkap dengan gambarnya plus teknik budidaya. Diambil kembali dari erakini.com: https://erakini.com/jenis-ikan-nila/
Sucipto dan Prihartono. 2007. Pembesaran nila hitam Bangkok di karamba jaring apung, kolam air deras, kolam air tenang dan karamba. Penerbit Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta.
Syifa Fauziah, L. S. (2020). Identifikasi kromosom ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) starain merah jatimbulan dan larasati yang diambil dari lokasi berbeda. Journal of Marine and Coastal Science, 76-85.