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Nile tilapia is still related to Mozambique tilapia and is not native to Indonesia, but fish originating from Africa. Nile tilapia was first imported to Indonesia from Thailand in 1969. This fish eats everything, such as plankton and various plants so that this fish is estimated to be used as a water weed control. This fish is very easy to breed. Tilapia (from now on we call Nile tilapia as tilapia only) has a high tolerance for its environment so that it can live in the lowlands with brackish water even to the highlands with fresh water. Tilapia habitat is quite unique, from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, swamps, rice fields, ponds to embankment.
Compared to Mozambique tilapia, the Tilapia type has a brighter appearance, is grayish in color and can reach a larger size. The body shape is elongated and slender, the scales of tilapia are relatively large, the eyes are protruding and large with white edges. Tilapia has five fins that are on the back, chest, stomach, anus and tail. There are several strains of tilapia found in Indonesia, namely local tilapia, gift and red tilapia. In addition, there are also several new strains resulting from crosses made by the government, including Nirvana tilapia, gesit tilapia, best tilapia, sultana tilapia, larasati tilapia, and so on.
Tilapia breed by first spawning at the age of 5-6 months with the number of eggs that can be produced varies between 100-1,500 eggs per spawning, depending on the size. Rematuration can occur between 4-9 months and a brood fish can experience maturation of the gonads during her life 3-4 times. The growth of male and female tilapia in a population will always be much different because male tilapia grow 40% faster than female tilapia. When female tilapia reaches a size of 200 grams, its growth will be slower, while male tilapia will continue to grow rapidly.
This will become an obstacle in projecting production. Currently, the technology of the maleization process has been discovered, which is to make male and female fish populations masculine through a sex reversal, by giving hormones during larval development until the age of 17 days. The process of mating male and female fish to produce larvae is called spawning. Tilapia can be spawned naturally, semi artificial, and artificial. Stimulation so that the Brood fish can spawn is done by means of environmental manipulation such as drying the pond, giving new water and applying sludge to the bottom of the pond or can be by hormonal means (pituitary technique).
Classification of catfish includes
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Actinopterygii
Order : Cichliformes
Family : Cichlidae
Genus : Oreochromis
Species : Oreochromis niloticus