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Method and system of tilapia hatchery

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
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Review By
Barkah Tri Basuki

Image Source : banglele.co.id

Tilapia is one of the important commodities of freshwater aquaculture originating from Africa. According to its history in Indonesia, tilapia was first imported from Taiwan to the Bogor Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute in 1969. After going through a period of research and adaptation, this fish was then distributed to farmers throughout Indonesia. Fisheries experts decided that the correct scientific name for tilapia is Oreochromis niloticus or Oreochromis sp. Tilapia is a group of fish that is quite strong in its endurance because it does not require much water requirements as its environment.

Tilapia commodity is one of the main commodities in the development of aquaculture and is targeted to encourage the achievement of the fisheries industrialization program. This stipulation is based on Indonesia's position as the second largest tilapia exporter after China. The need for tilapia in the form of fillets in the American market is quite large, and other potential markets for tilapia are the European Union, Iran and Russia (Fitzsimmons, 2012; FAO, 2017).

 NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2020) data shows that in the 2010-2019 period the average share of tilapia volume reached around 4.19% of the total volume of imports of USA fishery products. In the same period, around 73.69% of the total import volume of USA tilapia originated from China. The other nine countries that supply tilapia to the USA are Honduras, Indonesia, Colombia, Taiwan, Costa Rica, Mexico, Vietnam, Brazil, and Ecuador.

 Fulfilling the need for cultivation requires the availability of seeds in sufficient quantities, timeliness, and quality. The factors that influence it include quality tilapia broodstock, adequate ponds, available water, production facilities and infrastructure, seed care, and others. Fish growth is influenced by two factors, namely internal factors (genetic and physiological conditions of fish) and external factors related to the environment. External factors consist of the composition of the chemical and physical qualities of water, metabolic waste materials, availability of feed, and disease.

 For this reason, it is necessary to implement a good method and system in the hatchery sector in tilapia cultivation so that the resulting seed production is of good quality seeds that can be produced anytime and in large quantities to meet production needs. The steps that must be taken to produce good quality seeds include:

1. Maintenance management of tilapia broodstock for a good rematuration process

Tilapia broodstock is a factor that determines the success of the hatchery process in the cultivation business, the availability of seeds in sufficient quality and quantity is an absolute factor that determines the success of the business. To obtain good quality seeds in sufficient and sustainable quantities, healthy and superior broodfish are very influential on seed productivity.

The maintenance of tilapia broodstock is carried out as an effort for the rematuration process aimed at maximizing the maturity of the broodstock reproduction, so that it can produce high quality seeds and high (maximum) quantity. The steps taken during the tilapia broodstock rematuration process include:

  • Feed management in brood tilapia
  • Management of water quality control in the broodstock of tilapia
  • Management of diseases and pests in tilapia broodstock

2. Selection of main tilapia fish that are ripe gonads

Gonad maturity level is the stage of gonad development before and after spawning fish. The more the maturity of the gonads, the more eggs and sperm of tilapia will develop. During the reproduction process, some of the energy is used for gonad development. The gonad weight of the fish will reach the maximum when the fish will spawn then will decrease rapidly during the spawning process until it is complete. The level of maturity of the gonads can be seen from the shape, length and weight, color and development of the gonad contents. The development of gonads in female fish is more attention than male fish, the development of egg diameter contained in the gonads is easier to see than in the sperm contained in the testes. Female tilapia enters gonad maturity after 5-6 months of age. The female broodstock to be spawned has reached a weight of at least 200-250 grams and for male sires 250-300 grams.

  • TKG I (immature)
  • TKG II (starting to mature)
  • TKG III (mature)
  • TKG IV (very mature)

3. Spawning

Spawning technique is a mating process that occurs between male and female broodstock that releases sperm and egg cells, and occurs outside the body of the fish (externally). Generally, spawning in the hatchery business is carried out to conserve and obtain superior seeds which can later have a selling price, while for the business of spawning enlargement it is carried out to obtain new, higher quality prospective broodstock.

As previously described, tilapia fish are very easy to spawn naturally. The bottom of the tilapia spawning pond should be made sloping about 2-5%. Then create a mud hole or puddle at the bottom of the pond as deep as 20-30 cm as locations for spawning fish. Spawning on tilapia fish includes:

  • Selection of broodstock ready to spawn
  • Tilapia broodstock spawning
  • Hatching

4. Harvesting and rearing management of tilapia larvae

It is very important to pay attention to how to harvest and maintain fish seeds so that the harvesting process and the process during maintenance of tilapia seeds are not stressed, so that the seeds produced are maximized and the growth is better. As for the method of harvesting and maintaining tilapia seeds, it is divided into several factors, including:

  1. Water quality management in tilapia hatchery
  2. Tilapia larva feed management
  3. Tilapia seed water quality management
    • Physical parameters
    • Chemical parameters
    • Control of water quality
  4. Management of tilapia seed diseases and pests
    • Disease
    • Pests

5. Feed management in tilapia hatcheries

Tilapia are classified as omnivorous fish, so they can consume food in the form of animals and plants. The food of tilapia larvae is zooplankton such as Rotifera sp., Daphnia sp., and algae or mosses that stick to objects in their habitat. When tilapia is grown up, it is given additional food in the form of fine bran, coconut dregs, pellets, tofu dregs and others. Tilapia grow fast only on a diet containing 20-25% protein. The food eaten by fish consists of natural feed and artificial feed. The management of tilapia hatchery includes:

  • Management of feeding broodfish
  • Management of feeding fish larvae

6. Nursery of tilapia larvae

Nursery is the activity of raising fish larvae until they are spread in ponds or seeds that are ready for sale. The purpose of the nursery is to obtain fish of uniform size, both length and weight, and to give the seeds the opportunity to get food so that their growth will be the same. The nursery is divided into two stages, namely:

  • Sorting tilapia seed stage one
  • Stage two of tilapia seed sorting