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Pests on tilapia seeds

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
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Review By
Barkah Tri Basuki

Image Source : banglele.co.id

1. Factors causing pests

Several factors cause pests in ponds:

  • Dirty environmental conditions

Pests that are basically not needed in cultivation activities can arise due to a supportive environment, in terms of unclean environmental conditions such as a lot of grass around ponds or water plants that can become nesting places or shelters for pests.

  • Imperfect preparation

The second is the imperfect land preparation process, for example, the drying that does not take place perfectly results in a lot of pest seeds being found in the cultivation container. Pest eradication processes mechanically or manually cannot kill all pests in the cultivation container.

  • Lack of water quality control

The third is that the water inlet is not fitted with a net filter so that pests can still enter the cultivation container. And the last is the very poor water quality conditions for farmed fish and pests are still able to live in even extreme conditions. The main thing we have to pay attention to in this case is to maintain environmental conditions and water quality in order to remain optimum for the life of cultivated fish.

2. Types of tilapia larvae seed pests

There are two types of pests in tilapia seeds based on their characteristics, namely predators and competitors:

  • Predator

Odonata or Anisoptera (Dragonflies)

Source: wikipedia.org

Dragonflies are found around stagnant ponds, and lay their eggs on the surface of the water. Nymphs or dragonfly larvae live attached to aquatic plants. These dragonfly larvae will usually stay in water plants to wait for their prey to attack. Dragonfly larvae can reach 2 cm in size, and are predators of tilapia seeds. Tilapia seeds that are attacked will die because the body fluids are drained. Dragonfly larvae can cause high mortality rates in hatcheries and fish nurseries. The development of dragonfly larvae takes from 1-2 weeks to reach a flightless adult stage. After 2-3 weeks, the adult dragonflies are ready to lay their eggs on the surface of the pond water.

Cybister larvae (water beetles larvae)

Source: wikipedia.org

Cybister larvae are predators of tilapia seeds, with a body length of 1.5-2.5 cm, brownish-yellow or greenish in color. It has canines and poisonous tail tips, two pairs of antennae on the head and one pair of eyes on the left and right of the head. Water beetles larvae are more commonly found in fertile ponds and contain lots of organic material, for example ponds fertilized with dry chicken manure. Water beetles larvae prey on the larvae and seeds of freshly stocked tilapia until they are about 30 days old.

Notonecta (backswimmer)

Source: wikipedia.org

These insects have body features that are elongated and convex, a segmented beak that reaches the front legs. Known as the backswimmer because it swims upside down, and its shape resembles a grain of rice. These insects can be found in ponds with still water (stagnant), live in groups and are positive phototaxis. This insect preys on the larvae and seeds of tilapia by biting (stinging). This insect has strong jaws to clamp the bodies of young tilapia fish, with the enzymes contained in the jaws of these insects that dissolve the contents of the preys fish body so that it becomes easy to suck.

Belostoma indicus

Meanwhile, the type of pest Belostoma indicus is a ferocious organism that has a relatively large body, which is about 10-12 cm. This insect often attacks small fish and with the tools it has, it sucks all the body fluids of its prey. Just like Notonecta spp., this insect is also a bit difficult to control because at night it always flies from one pond to another looking for prey.

  • Competitors

Saesarma spp. (Freshwater Crab)