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Things that beginners need to pay attention to in tilapia farming

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
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Review By
Barkah Tri Basuki

Image Source : https://kotamobaguonline.com/2020/08/peluang-usaha-budidaya-ikan-nila/

We have explained the common mistakes that happen in beginner catfish farmers in the previous article. However, we will provide tips so that we must pay attention to important things before starting tilapia fish farming. Even though it is realized that many of the beginners know beforehand.

1. Capital

In the cultivation of tilapia, it is necessary for a cultivation beginner to know the details of the costs of tilapia farming business in every aspect that he will do. The capital required is as follows:

1.1. Initial capital

  • Rent land (if renting).
  • Making tilapia ponds.
  • Tilapia seeds.
  • The net.
  • Water pump.
  • Pond cleaning equipment.
  • Bucket or large basin.
  • Hose and pipe.
  • Miscellaneous equipment.

1.2. Operational costs monthly

Fixed cost

  • Depreciation of land lease (if renting).
  • Depreciation of tilapia ponds.
  • Depreciation of the net.
  • Water pump depreciation.
  • Depreciation of pool cleaning equipment.
  • Depreciation of container.
  • Depreciation of hose and pipe.
  • Depreciation of other equipment.

Variable costs

  • Feed.
  • Additional feed.
  • Medicine.
  • Vitamins and probiotics.
  • Packaging.
  • Electricity and water costs.
  • Transportation costs.
  • Employee salary (if using employee services).
  • Death of fish seed.
  • Other purposes.

2. Pond

Beginner cultivators must know the location, type and system used during the cultivation process so that cultivation does not become a loss. We already learn about the types of ponds in the previous article (link types of fresh water fish farming pond). Another thing that is important to know is the initial preparation of the cultivation pond, usually cultivation beginners think that as long as there is fish water it can live, even though this is a wrong minded, because the initial tilapia seeds also need to be free from pests and diseases as well as nutrients which must be prepared from the beginning of pond preparation with give certain treatments at the beginning of the pond construction such as drying the pond, applying fertilizer, chalk and others. The four steps for the type of ground pool that you should do is:

2.1. Drying

Start by drying the bottom of the pond. You can dry the ground pond by drying it in direct sunlight which can be done for 3-7 days. This drying is usually in accordance with the weather conditions. Once dry, plow the rock bottom of the pond to make it softer with a depth of more than 10 cm.

2.2. Soil Acidity

Ground ponds have a low acidity level or below 6 pH, while tilapia aquaculture requires freshwater with an acidity of between 7-8 pH. So it is necessary to do calcification on the soil. You can use dolomite or agricultural chalk to calcify the soil. The dose of calcifying the soil is to raise it up to 1-3 pH per ha of the pond, requires as much as 500-1000 kg of chalk per ha of agricultural chalk. put the chalk to the pond ground evenly and try to make the lime going inside the soil with a depth of 10 cm. then, let the soil mixed for 2-3 days until the soil acidity level is really reaching the point that we expected.

2.3. Fertilization

To fertilize ponds, use organic fertilizers because they are suitable for soil fertility. You can use fertilizer as much as 1-2 tons per hectare. Spread the fertilizer evenly into the soil pond and allow it to absorb into the soil by letting it for 1-2 weeks. After that, you can add urea fertilizer as much as 50-70 kg per ha and TSP 25-30 kg per hectare. Simply spread the urea fertilizer and let it for 1-2 days. It should be noted that this fertilization is a procedure used to provide nutrition for the micro plants and animals in the pond. Thus, these plants and animals can be used as natural food for your tilapia.

2.4. Irrigate the pond

The next step is to irrigate the pond. However, this irrigation was not carried out instantly, but in stages. First, pour water into the soil pool, until the water reaches a height of 10-20 cm. let the water sit for 3-5 days so that the soil blends with the water that can settle to the bottom of the pond. Don’t forget that you need sunlight for your pond so that aquatic organisms such as algae, for example, can grow well. Then, you can continue to fill the water into the pool until the water reaches a height of up to 75 cm.

3. Enlargement

The success’s key of tilapia aquaculture is the persistence of cultivators in these three matters: Controlling water quality, feeding, and controlling pests and diseases.

3.1. Control of water quality

Cultivation beginners must pay attention to controlling the parameters of pond water quality and maintain the optimal conditions for living tilapia, parameters that must be considered include temperatures between 25-30 °C, pH 7-8, dissolved oxygen 3.6-4.8 mg/L when the water quality getting better that mean the survival of tilapia also going better too. To maximize the growth of tilapia, several dangerous chemical elements such as NH3, CO2 and H2S must be avoided, if it is too high, immediately change the water.

3.2. Feeding

Generally, feed is the most costly factor, to make it not wasted, beginner cultivators should know more about the feed that used for their cultivation business, starting from the type of feed, protein content, feed resistance, method and amount of provision, physical quality of additional feed. All these things really need to be known by beginners of tilapia cultivation to support the growth of cultivated tilapia. The protein in tilapia feed is only about 25%, different from the types of catfish and goldfish which require more protein, which is around 30-45%. Tilapia need feed per day as much as five percent (5%) of their body weight.

3.3. Pest and disease control

Tilapia is a tough fish. Under normal circumstances, tilapia disease is not to be worrying. but if the cultivation of tilapia has been carried out intensively and in mass, especially with a high stocking density, the risk of disease attack must be more aware. The spread of tilapia disease is very fast, especially for types of infectious diseases where the transmission medium passes through the water. The types of diseases, pests in tilapia and management you can learn here.

4. Marketing

Marketing is the most important aspect to support your business. Based on the author’s experience, marketing tilapia is very easy. Buyers in villages and cities usually come directly to the tilapia fishing business pond. And the price offered is cheaper than competitors so that the tilapia cultivator business is selling well. To market tilapia, there are several ways that can be used, some of them: asking for cooperation with mobile vegetable traders to be entrusted with tilapia, selling directly to traditional markets, selling to various restaurants or food stalls or cafes, and installing banners and billboards containing your business, sell tilapia online on the internet which is, of course, a bigger market share throughout the world, etc.