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Tilapia cultivation has been known by the public as one of the easiest types of fish to maintain. Even with only a small pond, tilapia can grow and develop quite well. In addition, this fish does not require a large cost to cultivate it. For beginners, the media to start tilapia cultivation can be done in an earthen pond even though the land used is limited.
In general, the stages for cultivating tilapia in ground ponds start from choosing the right location to the harvesting process. A more complete explanation can follow the following steps:
1. Choosing the right location
The selection of a strategic location for tilapia cultivation plays an important role in supporting the success of cultivation. The ideal type of ground for tilapia cultivation is clay. This type of ground can reduce the risk of water shortages due to seepage. The availability of quality water that is quite abundant also needs to be considered so that tilapia can grow and reproduce optimally.
In addition, the factor that must be considered in determining the location is security, both in terms of security in terms of natural disasters and social factors. Pay attention to the distance of the overflow of water during heavy rains based on the history of the place, so that it can be taken into consideration to decide whether the place is worthy of being a cultivation pond or not. The safety factor from the social aspect must be ensured properly so that the location of the pond is safe from theft. One way to minimize losses from theft is to take a good social approach to community leaders and the surrounding community.
In addition, the factor that must be considered in determining the location is security, both in terms of security in terms of natural disasters and social factors. Pay attention to the distance of the overflow of water during heavy rains based on the history of the place, so that it can be taken into consideration to decide whether the place is worthy of being a cultivation pond or not. The safety factor from the social aspect must be ensured properly so that the location of the pond is safe from theft. One way to minimize losses from theft is to take a good social approach to community leaders and the surrounding community. Here are some things to consider when choosing a venue:
2. Pond preparation
The use of an earthen pond can be said to be a very easy and inexpensive medium because it does not require additional materials. And this type of pond has the advantage because it can be a place to grow Phytoplankton and Zooplankton which will later be useful as natural food for tilapia. The steps for preparing tilapia aquaculture ponds are as follows:
This drying is carried out in the sun for 3-7 days depending on the weather with the benchmark that the soil is cracked and when stepped on it will leave a trail as deep as 1-2 cm. Its function is to break the life cycle of pests and diseases that may have existed in the previous cultivation period. Most of the pathogenic microorganisms will die with sunlight.
Plow or hoe the soil surface to a depth of about 10 cm while removing rocks and dirt in the pond. The goal is to accelerate the process of decomposition (decomposition) of organic compounds in the soil so that the toxic compounds found at the bottom of the fish farming pond will evaporate.
This liming is done when the acidity level is high or the pH is low. This liming can be done with dolomite or other agricultural lime. Liming is done to get the right acidity level, namely pH 7-8. The dose required depends on the soil, for pH 6 as much as 500 kg/ha. pH 5-6 as much as 500-1,500 kg/ha, pH 4-5 as much as 1-3 tons/ha. The lime must be ensured to enter the soil surface as deep as 10 cm and then let stand for 2-3 days.
Fertilization should use organic fertilizers such as manure or compost. This fertilizer is given to restore soil fertility and the dose given is approximately 1-2 tons per hectare. Spread the fertilizer evenly and let sit 1-2 weeks. If it is necessary, you can add chemical fertilizers such as urea 50-70 kg/ha & TSP 25-30 kg/ha then let it go again for 1-2 days.
This irrigation can be done gradually by flowing water as deep as 10-20 cm and left for 3-5 days to be exposed to sunlight to provide algae and other aquatic organisms to grow. Then refill or raise the water level until it reaches a height of 60-70 cm.
3. Selection and sowing of seeds
Seed selection is done to get fish seeds of the same size, healthy and good growth. After getting the seeds that meet the criteria, the seeds can be stocked immediately. Fish density level is approximately 15-30 fish/m2 with seeds measuring 10-20 grams per head which will later be harvested when it reaches 300 grams per fish. Prior to stocking, acclimatization should be carried out to prevent stress on the seeds. Stocking is recommended in the morning, which is around 06.00-07.30 AM.
The method of acclimatization is to put a container containing tilapia seeds into the pond and leave it for a few minutes then tilt the tilapia seed container and let the seeds come out by themselves.
Tilapia rearing is carried out in a monoculture manner, namely keeping one type of fish in a container or pond, so that the fish seeds must be selected uniformly. In addition, water management is very important for the survival of tilapia. The way to manage pond water is through water changes that are carried out according to the level of fish density. The volume of pond water that is replaced every day is 30% or 50%. In tilapia cultivation, water changes are carried out once a month as much as 50%. Water quality parameters that must be considered are dissolved oxygen levels, temperature, ammonia and water pH.
Maintenance is also related to feeding. Feeding can be in the form of pellets with a protein content of 20-30%. Please note that tilapia requires a minimum of 3% of its own body weight daily feed. Feeding is carried out in the morning and evening, to calculate the need for tilapia feed, samples can be taken every two weeks and weighed so that it can be seen how much feed is needed. Calculation of tilapia feed requirements:
In one pond there are 1,500 tilapia with a size of 10 to 20 g/head.
Average fish weight → (10 + 20)/2 = 15 g/head.
Then the calculation of the required feed → 15 x 1500 x 3% = 675 g = 6.75 kg/day
Check the weight of the fish regularly every two weeks to adjust the volume of feed needed.
5. Pest and disease control
Fish farming cannot be separated from pests and diseases. The emergence of the disease is caused by several things such as the cultivation environment, cultivation techniques, poor harvest and post-harvest handling and the inappropriate size and type of material used in the storage container so that the fish are injured.
Tilapia is a type of fish that is quite resistant to extreme water conditions. However, if cultivated on a large scale with high densities, disease attacks are certainly susceptible to occur and need intensive attention. The spread of tilapia disease is very fast, especially types of infectious diseases that are easily transmitted. Transmission can be through water so that it can infect one or more fish ponds. Some types of diseases that usually attack tilapia, both in ponds and other containers are as follows:
White spot is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The clinical symptoms that can be identified in tilapia affected by this disease are the appearance of white patches or white membranes on their bodies, the movement of the fish becomes passive, and they often rub their bodies on the edge or at the bottom of the pond
How to treat tilapia that has been infected with this disease is to immediately replace the water in the cultivation pond with clean or new water. After that, immediately isolate or isolate the tilapia from the culture pond to the disease quarantine pond. The ways to prevent this disease from occurring in tilapia are paying attention to water quality to keep it clean, providing quality feed and in sufficient levels for the growth of tilapia, giving probiotics and vaccinating tilapia on a regular basis.
Red spots or spots are a type of disease in fish caused by Aeromonas and Pseudomonas bacteria. These bacteria usually attack almost the entire body of the fish, including the body, fins, gills and tail. The characteristics are bleeding in the affected body part, peeling scales, bloated stomach. When attacking the skin will look ulcers. Fish look weak and often come to the surface of the pond. When dissected the inside experience bleeding in the liver, kidneys and spleen.
Treatment can be done by injection, soaking or by mixing the drug in the feed. Potassium permanganate soaking drug 10-20 mg/liter for 30-60 minutes. Injection with 0.05 ml of tetramysin per 100 grams of fish weight or kanamycin 20-40 mg/kg fish weight. Mixing the feed with oxytetracyclin 50 mg/kg feed, given every day for 7-10 days.
Diseases caused by trichodina sp is a type of parasitic microorganism that commonly attacks freshwater fish and seawater fish. This parasite usually attacks the outside such as skin, fins and gills. The clinical symptom that can be identified is the presence of wounds in the affected organs.
Treatment can be done by soaking sick fish in a salt solution (NaCl) of 500-1000 mg/liter for 24 hours or with a formalin solution of 25 mg/liter. The prevention is to maintain the sanitation of the pond and install a water filter or settling basin in the pool irrigation installation.
Harvesting can be done according to market needs and market sizes range from 300-500 g/head. We can maintain tilapia with a size of 10-20 g/head to 300-500 g/fish in approximately 4-6 months.
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