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Tilapia cultivation in tarpaulin ponds

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
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Review By
Ita Apriyani

Image Source : https://www.muatartikel.com/2020/09/cara-budidaya-ikan-nila-sistem-bioflok.html

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is increasingly felt, especially on the community's economy. Coupled with the enactment of PPKM (enforcement of restrictions on community cctivities) which further limits people's mobility in earning a living. To overcome this, several community groups have begun to look at fishery business activities as a side business to cover some needs. Among the commodities that are cultivated are tilapia. In addition to the delicious taste of the meat, tilapia is also easy to cultivate and its productivity is fairly high. However, not all people have large areas of land, especially those who live in densely populated urban areas. Whether it's because the land is getting narrower or the price of land is increasing. To overcome the lack of land, a tarpaulin pond is the solution.

Among the advantages of tarpaulin ponds are that it can be done in a narrow area, can be built in areas with porous (sandy soil) and difficult to water, easy and inexpensive to manufacture, fish can be kept with high stocking density, pond maintenance is more practical, fish are healthier, grow fast. and higher survival rate compared to other pools (Kordi K, 2010). To get maximum results in tarpaulin pond tilapia cultivation, it is necessary to pay attention to the following points:

1. Determination of the location of the tarpaulin pond

In determining the location of the pond, it is necessary to consider the following two factors:

1.1. Technical factor

Consideration of technical factors for making a tarpaulin pond include:

  • Pond water sources, water sources that can be used for tilapia cultivation are PAM water, ground wells, rain-fed water, or river water, reservoirs, and others.
  • The location for making ponds, preferably for tilapia cultivated in locations with an altitude of 0-500m above sea level.
  • The size of the fish being farmed, to determine how deep the tarpaulin pond will be for tilapia cultivation. According to (Monalisa & Minggawati, 2010) the depth of the pond for tilapia cultivation should be more than 25 cm.
  • The surface of the ground used as the bottom of the pool must be flat.
  • Construction of holding ponds and waste treatment, so that the wastewater from aquaculture ponds is not directly discharged into public waters.

1.2. Socio-economic factors

Consideration of socio-economic factors, including:

  • The location of the business is not the location of the dispute.
  • It is recommended that the location of tilapia cultivation is in a fish farming development area, so that it is easy to obtain quality seeds and more affordable prices.
  • Adequate facilities and infrastructure to support cultivation business.
  • The location of cultivation is classified as safe from both wild animals and humans.
  • The market is always open to receive the harvest.

2. Making a tarpaulin pond

2.1. Determination of the type of tarpaulin pond

Tarpaulin ponds based on where they are laid are divided into two, tarpaulin pools above ground level and below ground level. Meanwhile, based on the construction material, it is divided into tarpaulin ponds with bamboo (iron orwood frames), earthen walls, brick walls, and concrete walls. The selection of the type of pond is based on the area of the location and the ability of the farmer.

2.2. Tools and materials

After determining the type of tarpaulin pond, then determine the appropriate tools and materials for the selected type of tarpaulin pond. These materials and tools include:

  • Plastic tarpaulin, the type of tarpaulin that is usually chosen is A5 and A6 because it has a service life of up to 5 years. While the size is adjusted to the size of the pond to be made.
  • Construction materials suitable for the type of pond, namely wood (pipe or bamboo or iron).
  • Board (zinc) asbestos used as a pool wall to hold the tarp.
  • Paralon pipe, used as a mechanical spillway to regulate the water level in the pond and also for the sewer.
  • Nails, wire, rope to tie and strengthen the pond.
  • Working tool.

2.3. Pond making

  • Level the soil for the bottom of the pond if the ground is sloping. Can use banana stems or rice husks as thick as 10 cm.
  • Plug in every corner of the bamboo or wooden pond as a pole (pond pole). The stronger the pole the better.
  • Make the framework in such a way and sturdy, and make the walls of the pond using boards or zinc. Make sure the zinc or board is not sharp so that it can damage the tarpaulin.
  • Install a tarp that matches the size of the pond.
  • Adjust the slope of the pond at one corner of the pond for the creation of a drain by tearing a bit of tarpaulin and then attaching a bend in the pipe.

3. Selection of tilapia seeds

Good tilapia seeds are healthy seeds, agile movements, have no defects or injuries, are responsive to the feed given, body color is not pale, resistant to disease. Good tilapia seeds can be obtained at trusted centers (hatcheries) and have SNI standard certification.

4. Water quality management

The desired water quality in tilapia cultivation in tarpaulin ponds includes a temperature of 25-320, pH 6.5-8.5, dissolved oxygen 3 mg/L, ammonia 0.02 mg/L, and brightness of 30-40 cm. (National Standardization Agency, 2009). Water changes are done every two weeks as much as 50%.

5. Fish seed stocking

After making ponds and managing water, the next step is stocking fish seeds. Stocking of fish seeds should be done in the morning or evening when the temperature is dropping so that the fish seeds do not experience stress. Acclimatize, acclimatization is the effort of living things to adapt to their new place of life (Asri, Padusung, & Abidin, 2012). The way to do acclimatization is to leave the container containing fish seeds in the pond for 15 minutes which aims to make the water temperature in the plastic bag the same as the temperature of the culture pond water. Then open the seed container and let the seeds come out on their own.

6. Feeding

The feeding of tilapia is adjusted to the cultivation system that will be chosen to be applied in the tarpaulin pond. (Nawawi, Sriwahidah, & Jaya, 2018) stated that for aquaponic tilapia rearing system, tilapia feed was fed using Hi-PRO-VITE 781–(1) pellets with a protein content of 32% and given as much as 3% of the weight of the biomass every day. . The frequency of feeding is twice a day. If the system applied to tilapia cultivation in tarpaulin ponds is a modular system, namely keeping tilapia by moving from one pond to another. According to (Jayadi, Asni, Scientific, & Rosada, 2021) the provision of pellets with a protein content of 35% which has been given probiotics and given as much as 3-5% of body weight and the frequency of giving three times a day, will increase the weight of fish during the rearing period, 4-5 months.

7. Harvesting

Tilapia harvesting is done when the size of the fish is in accordance with market demand. Harvesting is done by reducing the water in the pond. Then the fish are caught using a trough. For shipping, usually use plastic drums that have been given low temperature water (21-250 ºC) to reduce the movement of fish, so that fish are not stressed in shipping.



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