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The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is increasingly felt, especially on the community's economy. Coupled with the enactment of PPKM (enforcement of restrictions on community cctivities) which further limits people's mobility in earning a living. To overcome this, several community groups have begun to look at fishery business activities as a side business to cover some needs. Among the commodities that are cultivated are tilapia. In addition to the delicious taste of the meat, tilapia is also easy to cultivate and its productivity is fairly high. However, not all people have large areas of land, especially those who live in densely populated urban areas. Whether it's because the land is getting narrower or the price of land is increasing. To overcome the lack of land, a tarpaulin pond is the solution.
Among the advantages of tarpaulin ponds are that it can be done in a narrow area, can be built in areas with porous (sandy soil) and difficult to water, easy and inexpensive to manufacture, fish can be kept with high stocking density, pond maintenance is more practical, fish are healthier, grow fast. and higher survival rate compared to other pools (Kordi K, 2010). To get maximum results in tarpaulin pond tilapia cultivation, it is necessary to pay attention to the following points:
1. Determination of the location of the tarpaulin pond
In determining the location of the pond, it is necessary to consider the following two factors:
1.1. Technical factor
Consideration of technical factors for making a tarpaulin pond include:
1.2. Socio-economic factors
Consideration of socio-economic factors, including:
2. Making a tarpaulin pond
2.1. Determination of the type of tarpaulin pond
Tarpaulin ponds based on where they are laid are divided into two, tarpaulin pools above ground level and below ground level. Meanwhile, based on the construction material, it is divided into tarpaulin ponds with bamboo (iron orwood frames), earthen walls, brick walls, and concrete walls. The selection of the type of pond is based on the area of the location and the ability of the farmer.
2.2. Tools and materials
After determining the type of tarpaulin pond, then determine the appropriate tools and materials for the selected type of tarpaulin pond. These materials and tools include:
2.3. Pond making
3. Selection of tilapia seeds
Good tilapia seeds are healthy seeds, agile movements, have no defects or injuries, are responsive to the feed given, body color is not pale, resistant to disease. Good tilapia seeds can be obtained at trusted centers (hatcheries) and have SNI standard certification.
4. Water quality management
The desired water quality in tilapia cultivation in tarpaulin ponds includes a temperature of 25-320, pH 6.5-8.5, dissolved oxygen 3 mg/L, ammonia 0.02 mg/L, and brightness of 30-40 cm. (National Standardization Agency, 2009). Water changes are done every two weeks as much as 50%.
5. Fish seed stocking
After making ponds and managing water, the next step is stocking fish seeds. Stocking of fish seeds should be done in the morning or evening when the temperature is dropping so that the fish seeds do not experience stress. Acclimatize, acclimatization is the effort of living things to adapt to their new place of life (Asri, Padusung, & Abidin, 2012). The way to do acclimatization is to leave the container containing fish seeds in the pond for 15 minutes which aims to make the water temperature in the plastic bag the same as the temperature of the culture pond water. Then open the seed container and let the seeds come out on their own.
The feeding of tilapia is adjusted to the cultivation system that will be chosen to be applied in the tarpaulin pond. (Nawawi, Sriwahidah, & Jaya, 2018) stated that for aquaponic tilapia rearing system, tilapia feed was fed using Hi-PRO-VITE 781–(1) pellets with a protein content of 32% and given as much as 3% of the weight of the biomass every day. . The frequency of feeding is twice a day. If the system applied to tilapia cultivation in tarpaulin ponds is a modular system, namely keeping tilapia by moving from one pond to another. According to (Jayadi, Asni, Scientific, & Rosada, 2021) the provision of pellets with a protein content of 35% which has been given probiotics and given as much as 3-5% of body weight and the frequency of giving three times a day, will increase the weight of fish during the rearing period, 4-5 months.
Tilapia harvesting is done when the size of the fish is in accordance with market demand. Harvesting is done by reducing the water in the pond. Then the fish are caught using a trough. For shipping, usually use plastic drums that have been given low temperature water (21-250 ºC) to reduce the movement of fish, so that fish are not stressed in shipping.
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