Image Source : https://fin.co.id/2020/12/26/indonesia-kembalikan-limbah-b3-ke-negara-asal/
Waste is a by product of business activities in the form of solid or liquid that does not yet have economic value. According to WHO, waste is something that is not useful, not used, not liked, or something that is thrown away that comes from human activities and does not occur by itself. Another definition comes from the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Indonesia No. 231/MPP/Kep/7/1997 concerning procedures for importing waste, states that waste is material or leftover or used goods from an activity or production process whose function has changed from the original, except for those that can be eaten by humans and animals. Waste that is not handled properly will have an impact on environmental damage. The environment is the unity of space with all objects, forces, conditions, and living things, including humans and their behavior, which affect nature itself, the continuity of life, and the welfare of humans and other living creatures.
In general, waste can be divided into three types based on the shape or form, including the following:
1. Liquid waste
Liquid waste is the residue from a business or activity in the form of liquid (PP No. 82 of 2001 concerning water quality treatment and water pollution control).
2. Waste gas
Waste that uses air media in two forms, namely gas and particles. Particles are fine grains and are still visible to the naked eye, while gases can only be felt and through smell.
3. Solid waste
Solid waste is the residue resulting from industrial activities and domestic activities in solid form. The definition of solid waste is the same as the definition of waste according to law no. 8 of 2008 concerning waste management, waste is the residue of human daily activities and/or natural processes in solid form. Based on the origin of waste can be divided into six types, namely:
One of the sources of waste comes from fishery activities, both cultivation and processing of fishery products. Fishery waste that will be discussed this time is waste from tilapia as one of the most widely cultivated and processed fish species by the Indonesian people in general.
The most dominant type of waste generated from cultivation activities is organic waste. Lecturer of the Department of Fisheries, Gadjah Mada University (UGM) Yogyakarta Susilo Budi Priyono explained, the main fish farming waste comes from fish feed. The use of chemicals such as salt, lime, medicines, vaccines will also cause waste in fish farming. “Not to mention if the fish are affected by disease, the waste can also be in the form of disease. The feed we provide contains protein, the nutrient in it is nitrogen. Not all of the feed given is eaten by fish," explained Susilo Budi as quoted from the Kagama.co page, Monday (8/3/2021).
The factor causing waste in fish farming is known as Nitrogen (N) syndrome. Nitrogen syndrome is often a problem because the organic matter that comes from the rest of the feed and fish waste will be remodeled. Then it dissolves into ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4+) and this becomes toxic.
In addition, tilapia waste also comes from processing activities. Fishery waste consists of liquid waste (such as fish washing water, fish blood, etc.) and solid waste (such as bones, heads, gills, fins, skin, scales, shells, stomach contents, and so on). Most fishery waste is organic waste that can undergo a natural decomposition process. “The fishery production continues to increase, followed by the development of the fishery processing industry. Unfortunately, leaving by products (waste) in the form of bones, skin, fins, heads, scales, offal, and liquids that pollute the environment, cause bad odors, and interfere with human health and even death, said Professor of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences-IPB University, Prof. Dr. Ir Rokhmin Dahuri MS at the Webinar "Gaining Rupiah through Utilization of Shellfish and Fish Skins" held by PDSPKP-KKP, Tuesday (18/8).
This tilapia waste will certainly cause environmental pollution if not handled. According to Ibrahim (2005), fish waste has high organic nutrients that can cause eutrophication in public waters so that algae will thrive, organisms will die and siltation occurs. The unpleasant smell is caused by fish waste, which is an organic material that decomposes easily. The resulting impacts include:
• Produces an unpleasant odor (rotten smell).
• Media for the growth of harmful bacteria (pathogens).
• Can contaminate the resulting product.
Therefore, the waste must be handled properly so as not to pollute the surrounding environment. Various efforts have been made to reuse this useless waste. According to Hossain and Alam (2015), the ash content in fish offal is 4.75% and protein is 14.01%. According to Sukrasa in Kurniawati (2004), the phosphorus content in fish offal is 1-1.9%. Fish waste has been used as fish meal, fish silage, fish sauce and fish paste so that it becomes a product that has economic value (Harianti, 2012).
The high organic waste in the waste from aquaculture activities provides the potential to be used as a growth medium for other organisms because of its high nutritional content. Several types of organisms that are known to be able to use it are silk worms (Tubifex sp.) and water fleas (Daphnia sp.). Silkworms (Tubifex sp.) and water fleas (Daphnia sp.) are types of natural food that have an important role, especially in fish hatchery activities. This is due to the high nutritional content, one of which is the protein content which ranges from 41.10% and 42.65%.
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