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Treatment of disease, chemical vs herba

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
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Review By
Barkah Tri Basuki

Image Source : banglele.co.id

The fish disease is a very inhibiting factor in aquaculture, in accordance with the principle we all know in avoiding disease, namely "prevention is better than cure". Cultivators usually take precautions before the start of their cultivation business and prevention of fish diseases is usually carried out in the pond preparation phase. However, if a small or large number of sick fish have been found, the cultivator must take treatment before the fish being cultured dies and this is very detrimental to his cultivation business and can be in vain. How to treat fish, both chemical and herbal are usually in various ways such as:

1. Immersion

Immersion can be done directly in the pond or aquarium where cultivation is carried out or indirectly by using a container. Immersion is divided into three times, namely immersion, short-term immersion, and long-term immersion.

2. Feed

Feed treatment is the least stressful method for fish but is only effective at the onset of infection when the fish still have an appetite. You do this by spraying liquid medicine on the feed based on the dose.

3. Direct application to the fish body

  • Injections are done in two ways, namely inserted into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal) and inserted into the muscle (intramuscular). An intra-peritoneal injection is carried out between the two pelvic fins or slightly in front of the anus with an angle of inclination of the syringe approximately 30°. An intra-muscular injection is done on the back, on fish with scales, 3-5th scales from the head, with an angle of approximately 30-40°.
  • Smearing is done on sick fish that have very real clinical symptoms (wounds or ulcers). The number is relatively small and the size of the fish is quite large.

The treatment taken by cultivators is generally through chemical treatment and herbal treatment:

1.1. Chemical treatment

Chemical treatment or antibiotic drugs is a treatment path that is very often taken by cultivators. Examples of types of chemical drugs used in the prevention and treatment of fish include chlorine, formalin, malachite green oxalate (MGO), oxytetracycline (terramycin) and others.

The use of drugs or antibiotics has several advantages, such as effectiveness, does not take a long time, if the diagnosis and dosage are correct, the effect will be observed more quickly. However, the use of drugs or antibiotics has several drawbacks, such as the price is quite expensive, it is rather difficult to obtain especially for cultivators who are far from urban areas and if carried out continuously, it results in the emergence of bacterial resistance, residues in the fish's body, and polluting the environment which ultimately results in the emergence of bacterial resistance. can kill non-target organisms.

1.2. Herbal medicine

The use of herbal plants which are known to have benefits as anti-pathogenic, anti-viral and anti-bacterial. Several types of herbs or medicinal plants commonly used in fisheries for the treatment of certain types of fish diseases include garlic (Allium sativum Linn), guava leaf (Psidium guajava L), bitter (Andrographis paniculata), betel leaf (Piper betle L), kirinyuh (Chromolaena odorata), kipahit (Tithonia Diversifolia), jombang (Taraxacum officinale), ketapang (Terminalia catappa), turmeric (Curcuma longa), noni (Morinda citrifolia) and the crown of the gods (Phaleria macrocarpa) and still much more.

The use of traditional medicinal plants in the prevention and treatment of fish diseases has advantages such as being easy to obtain, inexpensive, effective for preventing and treating fish diseases, and relatively safe for fish, the environment, and humans who consume them. In addition, another advantage is that it does not cause resistance to disease-causing pathogenic agents. However, in its application, several problems were found, such as difficulty in dispensing and determining the right dose and slow healing process.