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There are many kinds of catfish pests and diseases, catfish farming without considering the risk of pests and diseases will bring disaster. Pests and diseases of catfish can be avoided by improving cultivation management. Even so, there are still external factors that cannot be avoided 100%. Many unexpected things can happen when we breed catfish. The source of pests and diseases of catfish from internal factors, including improper feed regulation, seeds that carry germs, and bad water regulation. Meanwhile, external factors include climate, weather, water sources, regional plague attacks, and so on.
1. Catfish pest control
In catfish farming, nuisance pests come from large organisms, both predators, intruders, and competitors. Predatory pests of catfish are weasels, lizards, and snakes. In urban areas, cats are sometimes a pest to watch out for. In addition, there are also frogs which are predators of small catfish seeds. Pests that are categorized as a nuisance are eels, especially those who cultivate catfish in soil ponds. These animals make holes in the soil ponds, causing the pond to leak. Competitors that are categorized are snakehead fish or tilapia fish because these fish can breed in ponds of air inlets or outlets. Handling from pest attacks can be done by various things such as fencing the edges of the pond, filtering the entrances and exits of the water, and covering the pond with nets. If we do fish farming intensively, usually pest disturbances rarely occur because the pond is relatively under continuous supervision.
2. Catfish disease control
Catfish diseases are almost the same as diseases found in other freshwater fish. Diseases that commonly attack diseases caused by fungi, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. The following are some catfish diseases caused by infection:
The cause is the protozoa of the Ichthyphyhirius multifillis type. This disease attacks almost all types of freshwater fish. In catfish, many attack the seeds. White spots grow on the surface of the skin and gills. When exposed to fish, they will rub their bodies against the wall or bottom of the pond. This catfish disease is triggered by poor water quality, the water temperature that is too cold, and the high stocking density of fish. To prevent fish from being exposed to white spots, keep the water temperature at around 28 °C, and use good quality of water for the pond. Treatment for this type of catfish disease includes immersing the fish in a 25 cc formalin solution per cubic meter of water, plus 0.15 gram green malachite per cubic meter of water for 24 hours. In catfish that are already growing up, this disease can also be eliminated by moving the fish to a pond with a temperature of 28 °C.
This disease is caused by a protozoan type Trichodina sp. Symptoms of Trichodiniasis catfish disease are the fish looks limp, dull body color, and often rubs his body against the walls and bottom of the pond. This catfish disease is transmitted due to direct contact and also through the water. Fish density is too high and lack of oxygen is allegedly triggering its development. Catfish disease can be prevented by regulating stocking density and maintaining water quality. This disease can be eliminated by immersing the fish in a 40 ppm formalin solution for 12-24 hours.
Catfish disease caused by this bacteria causes the fish’s stomach to swell with lymph fluid, swelling at the base of the fins, and wounds all over the fish’s body. The trigger factor for catfish disease is the accumulation of rotting leftover feed at the bottom of the pond. To prevent this, seek more appropriate feeding and maintain a water temperature of 28 °C. The most common treatment for seed fish is the administration of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline (OTC). You do this by mixing OTC with feed, the dose is 50 mg/kg of feed. Give for 7-10 days. If this catfish disease attacks the enlargement pond, change the pool water twice a day. At the time of changing the water, add table salt at a rate of 100-200 g/m3.
The cause is the Flexibacter columnaris bacteria. These bacteria attack internal organs such as gills. The symptoms it causes are cuts or abrasions on the surface of the body, white coating or white spots, slow swimming, and floating fish. The trigger factors are the decay of the remaining feed at the bottom of the pond and the water temperature that rises too high. Prevention by controlling feeding and maintaining water temperature at 28 °C. If there is more budget, give vaccines to fish seeds. To treat catfish disease is to give OTC 50 mg/kg of feed given 7-10 days. Alternatively, soak the fish in an OTC solution at a dose of 3-5 ppm for 12-24 hours. Catfish that are given new antibiotics can be consumed after two weeks.
This virus is classified as the herpes virus. The infected fish looks weak, swims in circles, is often vertical on the surface, and is bleeding from the fins and abdomen. The trigger factors for catfish disease are fluctuations in water temperature, decreased water quality, and high stocking density. To prevent this virus attack is by improving cultivation management, maintaining clean ponds, and providing quality feed. The treatment of fish infected with this virus is not yet known. However, catfish disease can be recovered by improving the cleanliness of the pond, such as changing the water in the pond until the fish appears to be recovering. Apart from the catfish disease above, there are also a number of diseases that are not caused by infection but caused by environmental conditions, such as poisoning and so on. Here are some non-infectious diseases that are important to know in catfish farming:
This disease is a result of malnutrition in the feed. The causes include poor feed quality, such as expired feed or the feed is stored in a damp place so that the feed is spoiled. Some statements suggest that jaundice can be caused by the continuous feeding of trash fish offal or fish. Another explanation says that jaundice attacks can come if there is a lot of red algae in the pond.
2.2. Rupture of the intestine or reptured intestine syndrome (RIS)
This catfish disease can be seen from its characteristic symptoms, namely intestinal rupture. The cause is excessive feeding. Catfish is a greedy fish, no matter what feed we give it will eat it so it will break the middle or rear intestine. To avoid this, adopt effective feeding arrangements. The need for catfish feed per day is 3-6% of body weight and must be given gradually morning, afternoon, evening, or night.
2.3. Vitamin deficiency
The most frequent cause of vitamin deficiency in catfish is vitamin C deficiency. Lack of this vitamin will result in a bent fish body and cracked head bones. If you see a fish disease like this, give it a vitamin mix that is widely sold in the market. The dose is 1 g/kg of catfish feed for 5-7 days.
This disease is caused by environmental factors such as water contaminated with pesticides, or due to other industrial chemicals. To overcome this, try to change the pond water at least 20% twice a day.