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Utilization of tilapia fish waste

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Created By
Shanjaya Mandala Putra
14-11-2022
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Edited By
Hamiman Simbolon
17-05-2022
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Review By
Ita Apriyani
17-05-2022
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Image Source : https://www.antarafoto.com/bisnis/v1542804617/pemanfaatan-limbah-tulang-ikan

Waste is waste generated from a production process, both industrial and domestic (household), whose presence at a certain time and place is not desired by the environment because it has no economic value. According to Syamsuddin (2014), water pollution in terms of fishery production is the entry or inclusion of living things, energy substances and or other materials into the waters by human activities or through natural processes that cause changes in the order or composition of water, so that water quality drops to to a certain level that causes the water to no longer function in accordance with the requirements for fishery production. Waste generated from fishing activities is still quite high, which is around 20-30%. Fish production reaches 6.5 million tons per year, this means around two million tons are wasted as waste.

Fishery waste generally comes from cultivation and processing of fishery products. Fishery waste that will be discussed this time is sourced from the cultivation and processing of tilapia as one of the most popular types of fish and processed by the people of Indonesia. Lately, tilapia waste, both sourced from cultivation and processing activities, has been widely used or reprocessed into a product of economic value. The following is an example of the utilization of fishery waste, especially tilapia waste into products of economic value:

1. Fishbone Hydroxyapatite from tilapia bone waste

Fishbone Hydroxyapatite products are derived from tilapia bone waste. Hydroxyapatite is a crystalline phosphate of calcium which has a hydroxyl ion. Hydoxyl is a primary mineral contained in bone, which is about 43% by weight of bone (Wang, 2008). Hydroxyapatite is an ideal material that has a large capacity to absorb contaminants in the form of heavy metals in solids, liquid waste and fly ash.

The reason why tilapia bones were chosen as the basic material for making Hydroxyapatite is because fish bones consist of collagen and contain 60-70% inorganic substances, usually in the form of calcium phosphate and Hydroxyapatite (Kim, 2006). Hydroxyapatite production from fish bones is carried out at high temperatures of around 600 °C and 900 °C which serves to form a micropore structure (Ozawa et al, 2005).

Fishbone Hydroxyapatite is useful for reducing heavy metal pollution in the textile industry, leather tanning, metal coating, batik industry and other industries that use substances containing heavy metals.

2. Leather jacket from tilapia skin waste

This leather jacket product uses the reuse of tilapia fish skin waste from the by product of the fillet industry into leather which can be used for jackets with a washable tanning process. Tilapia skin from fillet industry waste can be used as raw material for making garments where the physical and mechanical properties resemble garment leather from conventional leather according to the requirements of SNI 06-4593-1998 Jacket leather from sheep (goat).

The process of making leather jackets from tilapia skin waste is by using a concentration of reactive dyes at 10%, fat liquoring 10% and water repellants 10% giving the most optimum physical and chemical properties with test results before and after consecutive tests: tensile strength 71.402 and 123.81 kg/cm, elongation 98.57 and 123.81%, tear strength 47.70 and 36.74 kg/cm, sewing strength 98.57 and 123.81 kg/cm slack 4,3 2 and 5,1 6. So with this formula can produce skin that does not fade, both for sweat resistance and resistance to washing and dimensional changes.

3. Medicine for burns from tilapia fish skin

This burn medicine innovation was carried out by a group of Yogyakarta State University (UNY) students including Wahyuni ​​Eka Maryati, Priska Wahyuni, Eva Cristyani Br Tarigan, Annisa Husnul Latifah, and Rizni Rahayu who succeeded in creating a burn medicine from the skin of tilapia.

Tilapia skin is known to have moisture, collagen, and disease resistance at levels comparable to human skin. So it can help wound healing. Tilapia skin contains 47.43% protein, 23.4% water, 1.68% fat, and 3.01% ash.

Tilapia skin also contains type one collagen. This means that the type of collagen contained in the skin of tilapia is an SDS-PAGE pattern which has chains and cannot be observed clearly because they appear to coincide. This raw material for tilapia skin helps regenerate cells into fibrin connective tissue to close wounds.

4. Liquid organic fertilizer from tilapia offal waste

The manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer (POC) stems from the problem of fish waste that is not utilized so that it has the potential to pollute the environment such as water and air, for example algae fertilization and cause unpleasant odors. Therefore, efforts are being made to minimize fish waste so that it is useful, namely processing fish waste into liquid organic fertilizer (POC). Fish waste that is used as poc comes from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) waste, namely offal. According to Hossain and Alam (2015), the ash content in fish offal is 4.75% and protein is 14.01%. According to Sukrasa in Kurniawati (2004), the phosphorus content in fish offal is 1-1.9%.

The process of making POC from tilapia waste starts from weighing fish offal. offal obtained from the market which is collected, washed, and then mashed. Then, the offal is put into the fermenter and followed by the addition of 100 ml of sugar water and one liter of water and 150 ore mL of EM4. Furthermore, fermentation was carried out for 23 days. POC from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) waste is useful for the growth of green spinach (Amaranthus viridis L) plants.

 

References

Gita Lokapuspita, M. H. (2012). Pemanfaatan limbah ikan nila sebagai fishone hydroxyapatite pada proses adsorpsi logam berat krom pada limbah cair. Jurnal Teknologi Kimia dan Industri, 379-388.

KARTIKO, R. K. (2016). Perbedaan kadar air dan lama simpan tepung tulang ikan laut. Diploma thesis, Poltekkes Kemenkes Yogyakarta. thesis, 7-9.

Sultoniyah 1, A. P. (2019). Pengaruh pupuk organik cair limbah ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman bayam hijau (Amaranthus viridis L.). Prosiding Symbion (Symposium on Biology Education), 96-105.

Syahrir, Y. M. (2019, Januari 16). Pengelolaan Lingkungan Budidaya Perikanan. Diambil kembali dari pusdik.kkp.go.id: http://www.pusdik.kkp.go.id/elearning/index.php/modul/read/190116-093236uraian-c-materi